Our Mission: Create Opportunities for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and their Families to Participate Fully in the Community

Glossary of Developmental Disability Terms

This resource has been compiled by the staff of Developmental Disabilities Resource Center. It is dedicated to Mike Boorman, parent and former Board Director. With thanks for his many contributions to DDRC and especially for his helpful reminders regarding the use of clear language. If you have wondered what a term means, or what an acronym is, this glossary can help you find the answers.

AAIDDAmerican Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. The nation’s oldest and most respected professional association run by and for professionals who support people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. www.aaidd.org
ABAApplied Behavior Analysis. A discipline devoted to the understanding and improvement of human behavior through skill acquisition and the reduction of problematic behavior in a measurable and accountable manner. Often used interchangeably with behavior modification.
ABC AssessmentObserving behavior (B) and its functional relationship to antecedents (A) and consequences (C).
ABSAdaptive Behavior Scale. The ABS is one of the best-researched and tested psychological measurement tools for evaluating adaptive behavior (daily functioning).
ACAAffordable Care Act. Federal statute also known as Obamacare.
ACCAccountable Care Collaborative. A Colorado Medicaid program to improve clients’ health and reduce costs. ACCs serve as a medical home for clients, enhanced medical management, care coordination and integrated disease management.
ACOAccountable Care Organizations. Providers that voluntarily meet quality outcome-based thresholds.
ADAAmericans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This comprehensive federal civil rights law makes it unlawful to discriminate in private sector employment against a qualified individual with a disability. The ADA also outlaws discrimination against individuals with disabilities in state and local government services, employment, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunication.
ADDAttention Deficit Disorder. A disorder that shows up in the areas of inattention and impulsiveness. It is evidenced by having difficulty organizing and completing tasks correctly, frequent shifting from one activity to another, failure to follow rules. ADD without hyperactivity refers to the disorder without a high degree of atypical motor activity.
ADEAAge Discrimination and Enforcement Act
ADHDAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This is similar to ADD but includes gross motor over activity, such as excessive running, talking, or manipulation of objects and excessive fidgeting and restlessness.
ADLActivities of Daily Living.
ADRCAging Disability Resource Center.
AEDAutomated External Defibrillator is a device that can be used instead of CPR to revive a person after cardiac arrest.
AFDCAid to Families with Dependent Children. A financial assistance program for single-parent families. Modified in the welfare reforms of 1997.
AHRQAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
AIDSAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
AKSAnti-Kickback Statute.
ALISONAutomated Licensure Information System Online (through DORA).
ALJAdministrative Law Judge.
ANDAid to Needy and Disabled.
APSAdult Protection Services. The Adult Protection Services unit provides assistance for adults who are at risk of mistreatment or self-neglect.
AOAAdministration on Aging.
APSAdult Protective Services
APSEAssociation for Persons in Supported Employment. APSE is a national membership organization committed to expanding and improving integrated employment opportunities and outcomes for persons with disabilities. www.apse.org
ARCHAdult Resources for Care and Help. Colorado’s ADRC. Regional access point to long term care services and support for adults age 60 and over, or age 18 and over living with a disability, and their caregivers.
ARSAdult Residential Services. State funded residential facilities such as group homes and apartments.
ASLAmerican Sign Language. A formal method of communication used by people with hearing impairments. It is a system of articulated hand gestures and their placement relative to the upper body as well as facial expression, movements, postures and other non-manual signs that enhance and emphasize the meaning of signs.
ASOAdministrative Service Organization. An non-risk bearing entity that is hired to perform fiscal, legal, and management duties.
ATNRAsymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex. With the head turned to the side, the arm on the face side is extended while the arm on the skull side is flexed.
AWDCAdults Without Dependent Children.
AccessibleEasy to approach, enter, operate, participate in or use safely, independently and with dignity by a person with a disability.
AccessibilityModification of buildings, curbs, and other physical structures to allow easy movement and admittance by a person with a disability. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 mandates accessibility to all public and private facilities. Modifications might include ramps, use of Braille and sound adaptations.
AccountabilityMeasures to assure that public funds are used to achieve the desired outcomes in a cost-effective manner.
Accountability, overallCore indicators that summarize the overall picture of the health of a system as compared to other states or other CCBs.
Accountability, programmaticSelf-determination mechanisms, satisfaction surveys, complaint and dispute processes.
AcidosisA disturbance of acid-base balance in the body.
AcronymA word formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the successive parts or major parts of a compound term. Acronyms are used for naming syndromes or other conditions and also used as abbreviated names of organizations (for example DDRC), programs, services and tests.
Adaptive BehaviorAdaptive behavior means that the person has overall adaptive behavior which is significantly limited in two or more skill areas (communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work), as measured by an instrument which is standardized, appropriate to the person’s living environment, and administered and clinically determined by a qualified professional. CDHS/DDD Reg.
Adaptive ResponseThe way in which an individual responds to what is happening in the environment. How well the individual responds determines whether or not a task has been learned.
Adaptive Skills (Functional Skills)Those skills used in daily living such as dressing and eating.
AdjudicatedMeaning to go before a judge. This term is used to describe the fact that an individual has had a guardian appointed by the court. The person is no longer deemed competent to make informed decisions independently.
AdrenalA gland near each kidney that produces hormones.
Advance DirectiveA document that tells your doctor what kind of care you would like to have in case you become unable to make your own decisions about medical treatment and the provision of health care, when and if you become incapacitated (for example, if you are in a coma).
AdvocacyParents (or families), organizations or volunteers working on behalf of the rights and interests of others (such as people with disabilities). Parents are the best advocates for their children.
AffectEmotional aspects of behavior.
AffectivePertaining to the emotional aspects of behavior.
Alternative Care FacilityA residential facility which provides a package of personal care and homemaker services and protective oversight to eligible persons who meet applicable state and federal requirements, and which is state-certified.
AllianceAn association of community centered boards and service agencies dedicated to improving programs for people with developmental disabilities. www.alliancecolorado.org
Alzheimer DiseaseA degenerative disease of the brain, causing mental degeneration.
AmbulationRolling, crawling, walking, running.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990This comprehensive federal civil rights law makes it unlawful to discriminate in private sector employment against a qualified individual with a disability. The ADA also outlaws discrimination against individuals with disabilities in state and local government services, employment, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunication.
AmniocentesisAmniotic fluid is drawn from the uterus during pregnancy to determine genetic or biochemical abnormalities in the fetus.
AnoxicPertaining to or caused by lack of oxygen in the blood.
AntecedentA stimulus that occurs before a behavior. It makes a behavior more or less likely to occur again in the future.
Apgar ScoreSystem of scoring an infant's condition one minute and five minutes after birth.
Applied Behavior AnalysisA discipline devoted to the understanding and improvement of human behavior through skill acquisition and the reduction of problematic behavior in a measurable and accountable manner. Often used interchangeably with behavior modification.
ApraxiaInability/difficulty in initiating or performing purposeful movements.
Aquatic TherapyA therapeutic procedure which attempts to improve function through the application of aquatic therapeutic exercises.
ArcAn agency which collaboratively provides leadership in addressing the choices and needs of individuals with developmental disabilities and their families. Supporting persons with developmental disabilities living in Jefferson, Clear Creek and Gilpin counties. www.arcjc.org
ArticulationThe movement by the tongue, teeth and lips necessary to make a given sound.
Asperger Syndrome or DisorderA developmental disorder characterized by a lack of social skills, impaired social relationships, poor coordination and poor concentration. Children with Asperger Disorder have average to above average intelligence and adequate language skills in the areas of vocabulary and grammar, but they may not understand the subtleties used in conversation such as irony and humor. It is believed that Asperger Disorder has a later onset than Autistic Disorder or at least is generally recognized later.
AspirationTaking into the airways of a fluid or foreign material.
AssessmentTools that are used to find an individual’s unique strengths and needs.
Assistive TechnologyDevices used by people with disabilities to compensate for functional limitations and to enhance and increase learning, independence, mobility, communication, environmental control and choice.
Assistive Technology ServicesThese services include, but are not limited to the evaluation of a person’s need for assistive technology; helping to select and obtain appropriate devices; designing, fitting and customizing those devices; purchasing, repairing or replacing those devices; and training the individual to use the devices effectively. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.40
Atlantoaxial InstabilityA greater than normal mobility of the two upper cervical vertebrae at the top of the neck. Usually found in persons with Down Syndrome.
AuditoryPertaining to hearing.
Auditory MemoryThe ability to recall what is heard.
Auditory ProcessingInterpretation or the ability to give meaning to the information received through the ears. It is not simply hearing.
Augmentative or Alternative CommunicationNon-verbal communication such as sign language, symbol systems (communication boards) or electronic voice output devices.
Authorized RepresentativeAn individual designated by the person receiving services (or by the parent or guardian of the person receiving services) to assist the person receiving services in acquiring or using services or supports. The extent of the authorized representative’s involvement shall be determined upon designation. CRS 27-10.5-102
AutismA developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social relationships, generally evident before age three, which adversely affects a child's educational performance.
AutonomyAn ethical principle that proposes that all adults are competent until a court decides that incompetence exists. It embodies the concept of self-determination and supports the ability of a person to make decisions for him or herself consistent with the person’s beliefs and values. To act autonomously a person, therefore, must have an established set of values by which to measure his or her own interests.
Aversive Stimuli or PunishmentAny event immediately following a behavior which reduces the frequency or duration of that behavior.
Avoidance BehaviorA behavior which allows an individual to avoid an aversive or unpleasant situation or condition.
BCABABoard Certified Associate Behavior Analyst. A BCABS holds a bachelor’s degree and has passed a national certification exam, among other requirements.
BCBABoard Certified Behavior Analyst. A BCBA holds a master’s degree or Ph.D. and has passed a national certification exam, among other requirements.
BIBrain Injury.
BIPBalancing Incentive Program.
BLOGA contraction of the term web log. A website, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, description of events, or other materials.
BHOBehavioral Health Organization is a provider network organization managing a group of mental health centers.
BOCESBoard of Cooperative Educational Services.
BabblingPlay and experimentation with sound by infants, which usually begins around three to four months of age.
Baseline, Base Rate, or Operant LevelThe frequency or duration of a behavior before it is changed, modified or before a program is put into effect.
BehaviorAny observable, measurable response or action.
Behavior ModificationOutdated term. Please see Applied Behavior Analysis.
Behavior ObjectiveA statement that depicts the specific behaviors desired after intervention occurs.
BeneficenceAn ethical principle which promotes good and discourages harmful actions towards other human beings. It is historically associated with care giving and doing good for others.
BilateralMovement of both sides of the body simultaneously and parallel.
BinocularBoth eyes used simultaneously.
BlepharitisInflammation of the edges of the eyelids.
Body SchemeAn inner awareness of body parts and how each relates to the other in movement.
BronchodilatorType of drug used in respiratory problems to open bronchial tubes to aid in breathing.
CAChronological Age. The actual age of an individual derived from his or her date of birth.
CACCBColorado Association of Community Centered Boards, now doing business as Alliance.
CAMIColorado Alliance for the Mentally Ill.
CAPRAColorado Association of Private Residential Agencies.
CAPTAChild Abuse Prevention & Treatment Act. Legislation that provides federal funding to states in support of prevention, assessment, investigation, prosecution and treatment activities.
CARFCommission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities. A private, nonprofit organization that establishes standards of quality for services to people with disabilities. Adherence to these standards is then measured through an on-site review of an organization requesting accreditation. CARF is the nationally recognized accrediting authority whose sole concern is to promote quality services for people with disabilities. www.carf.org
CAT ScanComputed Axial Tomography. A radiological technique to produce a picture that shows the brain in cross section.
CBMSColorado Benefits Management System
CCHAPColorado Children’s Healthcare Access Program
CCBCommunity Centered Board. A nonprofit organization created by the Colorado legislature to determine eligibility of individuals with developmental disabilities within a specific geographical district and develop a plan for services and supports. CCBs are authorized to provide services directly or to purchase services from service provider organizations.
CCERAPColorado Coalition for Elder Right and Adult Protection
CCMSCommunity Contract and Management System. Computerized system used by CCBs and the state Division for Developmental Disabilities for tracking consumer information. CCMS furnishes demographic, program enrollment and billing information.
CCOCoordinated Care Organizations.
CCRCode of Colorado Regulations.
CDASSConsumer Directed Attendant Support Services provides in-home services from attendants selected, hired, trained and supervised by the person receiving the services.
DDPCColorado Developmental Disabilities Planning Council. Developmental Disabilities Planning Councils exist in each state and U.S. territory, advising and assisting state agencies in planning for and providing services to persons with developmental disabilities.
CDEColorado Department of Education.
CDHCPFColorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing.
CDHSColorado Department of Human Services.
CDPHEColorado Department of Public Health and Environment.
CECCouncil for Exceptional Children. A national, professional organization concerned with special education. www.cec.sped.org
CESChildren’s Extensive Support waiver. Medicaid benefits and additional supports for children birth to 18 years old with extensive medical or behavioral needs requiring direct intervention at least every two hours during the day and every three hours during the night. Families must apply through their local CCB.
CfCsConditions for Coverage (for Medicare Certification)
CFSChildren and Family Services.
C-HCBSChildren’s Home and Community Based Services Waiver. Medicaid benefits and case management for children birth to 18 years old with significant functional long-term care needs. Must be deemed medically fragile. Waives SSI income limit for children who meet long-term care criteria.
CHFAColorado Health Financing Authority.
CHP+Child Health Plan Plus.
CIECommunity Integrated Employment.
CISCombined Information Services. A collaborative effort of several CCBs to review and develop an information systems plan to track and access information for managed care.
CLAGCommunity Living Advisory Group
CLASCulturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services.
CLRComprehensive Life Review.
CMCase Manager. (Same as Resource Coordinator or RC)
CMACase Management Agency.
CMBSColorado Benefits Management System.
CMIChronically Mentally Ill.
CMS or CMMSCenter for Medicaid Services/Center for Medicare Medicaid Services. Federal unit which administers Medicare/Medicaid.
CMVCytomegalovirus. A virus which can result in damage to a fetus.
CMWChildren’s Medical Waiver. Merged with Health Care Policy & Finance (HCBS) waiver for children effective September 15, 2000.
CNACertified Nurse’s Aide.
CNAColorado Nonprofit Association. A private, nonprofit organization whose purpose is to promote and strengthen Colorado’s nonprofit community. www.coloradononprofits.org
COBRAConsolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. Is a law passed by the U.S. Congress in 1985 with provisions for states to include habilitation services offered in home and community based pre-vocational and community employment for qualifying persons.
COGNOSBusiness intelligence and corporate performance management software created by Cognos Inc.
COHBEColorado Health Benefit Exchange.
COIConflict of Interest. A real or seeming incompatibility between one’s private interests and one’s public or fiduciary duties.
COINColorado Innovation Network. A public enterprise established to foster collaboration and idea-sharing across the private sector and academic and public lines to increase the state’s reputation to attract innovative industries and to increase jobs in this sector.
CO-OPConsumer Operated and Oriented Plan. A program to promote the creation of non-profit, membership-run health insurance companies.
COPsConditions of Participation (for Medicare Certification)
CORFComprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility.
CPCommunity Participation.
CPCerebral Palsy.
CPRCardiopulmonary Resuscitation is an emergency medical procedure for a victim of cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest using compressions and lung ventilation.
CPR DirectiveCardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Directive (also known as a Do Not Resuscitate (DNR Order) allows an individual, agent, guardian, or proxy to refuse resuscitation in the event of cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest.
CPSChild Protective Services.
CPU (computer term)Central Processing Unit. The CPU is the brain of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system.
CREColorado Rehabilitation Enterprises.
CRS 27-10.5, as amendedColorado Revised Statutes. Authorizes services for persons with developmental disabilities.
CSPCommunity Support Program.
CTRSCertified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist.
Cadillac PlansEmployer-sponsored health plans with aggregate values that exceed $10,200 for individual coverage and $27,500 for family coverage.
CapitationA method of financing services where the payer pays a fixed amount of money per person to a managing agency to deliver a set of services whether or not the person uses the services.
Cardiac Conditions ASD: Atrial Septal Defect An opening occurring between the two upper chambers of the heart.
VSD: Ventricular Septal Defect An opening occurring between the two lower chambers of the heart.
PDA: Patent Ductus Arterious An opening occurring between the aorta and the main pulmonary artery persisting after birth.
Carve OutCertain services may be purchased outside the basic managed care package (for example, as when long-term support services are delivered through means other than a managed health plan).
Case RateThis is a dollar amount that the payer pays per consumer to the managing entity. Case rates are keyed to people who actually receive or use services. Capitation rates are keyed to an entire service group whether or not they receive services.
Cash and CounselingA model program in three states funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Individuals receive funding which they control themselves.
CCB Designated Service AreaThe geographical area specified by the Executive Director of the Department of Human Services to be served by a designated CCB.
Cerebral Palsy (CP)Conditions which exhibit spasticity, weakness, lack of coordination or any other motor problem due to organic brain damage. These include sensory and/or movement disorders, seizures, intellectual, learning disabilities and disorders of behavior.
Children and Family Services (CFS)DDRC team of resource coordinators and support staff who administer the Family Support Services Program (FSSP) and provide case management for children birth to eighteen active or waiting for EI, FSSP, CES, and CHCBS.
Child FindProcess of identifying children with disabilities, typically completed by a team in a school district.
ChromosomeCell structures that carry the genes. These hereditary factors include 46 chromosomes in humans.
Chronological Age (CA)The actual age of an individual derived from his or her date of birth.
Client (computer term)The client part of a client-server architecture. Typically, a client is an application that runs on a personal computer or workstation and relies on a server to perform some operations. For example, an e-mail client is an application that enables you to send and receive e-mail.
Co-contractionAll muscles around the joint are working so that the joint, when pushed from any direction, won't work.
CognitiveA broad term that refers to any class of mental "behaviors" such as reasoning or problem solving. Awareness with perception.
Colorado Division of Vocational Rehabilitation ServicesA state agency that provides services to eligible individuals with disabilities, such services resulting in an employment outcome. Some services offered by the Division are dependent on financial eligibility.
Colorado Hospital Provider FeeFees collected from select hospitals to match additional federal funds which are then redirected back to providers for under-compensated and uncompensated care.
Commensurate WagesA wage which is proportionate to the prevailing wage paid experienced non-disabled workers in the community for essentially the same type of work based on a comparison of the quantity and quality of production of the disabled worker with that of the non-disabled workers.
Communication BoardA primary system of communication for individuals who cannot vocalize intelligibly. These boards have pictures, symbols or words and may be electronically operated. To use these boards, a person must be able to associate a picture with an object, event or need.
Community Centered Board (CCB)A nonprofit organization created by the Colorado legislature to determine eligibility of individuals with developmental disabilities within a specific geographical district and develop a plan for services and supports. CCBs are authorized to provide services directly or to purchase services from approved service agencies.
Community ExperiencesLearning experiences for the purpose of assisting individuals with appropriate social and functional skills in the community.
Community First Choice OptionProvides for statewide home and community-based attendant services and supports for individuals with disabilities, up to 300% of SSI, who require an institutional level of care.
Community Participation (CP)This service offers opportunities for persons with developmental disabilities to experience valued adult roles in the community. These services should enable an individual to access and participate in typical services, supports and activities that any person might enjoy.
Comprehensive Life Review (CLR)Thorough review of all aspects of the person’s current life situation by the interdisciplinary team. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.4
Comprehensive ServicesComprehensive Services (Adults) provides 24-hour residential care, employment and other day-type services and transportation. Comprehensive Services is an all-inclusive program that is designed to ensure that all identified needs in a person’s Service (Individualized) Plan (SP) are met. A person cannot be living with his/her family and receive Comprehensive Services.
ConceptGeneralized abstract idea gathered from a particular instance.
Conditioning (Operant)Procedure through which the likelihood of a behavior occurring can be either strengthened or weakened by the event that directly follows the behavior.
Conductive Hearing LossA loss in which the intensity of sound vibrations reaching the auditory nerve in the middle ear is reduced.
Consecutive SwallowCoordinated action necessary for safe, efficient feeding.
ConsentAn informed agreement which is expressed in writing and is freely given.
ConsequenceA stimulus that occurs after a behavior. It makes a behavior more or less likely to occur again in the future.
Consumer Directed SupportsSupport services under the control of the consumer.
Contingent or ContingencyThe relationship between a behavior and the consequence that follows.
ContralateralMovement of opposite arm and leg.
Cost SavingsThese are efforts to direct resources into the most cost-effective services and supports for individuals in order to provide quality services to the most individuals possible.
Criterion ReferencedMeasurement of performance as compared to an established standard.
Cues or PromptsForms of assistance to a person that helps teach a behavior and indicates what to do to earn a reinforcer. Cues come in physical, visual and verbal forms. Physical assistance refers to physical cues.
CyanosisBluish discoloration of the skin or fingernails and toenails caused by a lack of or diminished oxygen supply.
DD Planning CouncilA council appointed by the Governor whose goal is to advocate and foster public awareness of problems and issues facing persons with developmental disabilities. Also see CDDPC.
DDFDevelopmental Disabilities Foundation was established in 1982 to generate additional resources to meet the needs of people with developmental disabilities. It assists DDRC with donations, fund raising, grants, estate planning, and other activities.
DDRCDevelopmental Disabilities Resource Center. DDRC is the Community Centered Board for Jefferson, Clear Creek, Gilpin, and Summit counties.
DDDDivision for Developmental Disabilities. DDD is the division within the Department of Human Services, Office of Health and Rehabilitation Services, responsible for the administration of state sponsored services and funding for developmental disabilities for the State of Colorado. This agency oversees services to Community Centered Boards.
DHSDepartment of Human Services. Formerly referred to as the Department of Social Services.
DIDeinstitutionalization. The movement of individuals out of large congregate settings into smaller, more individualized settings.
DNRA Do Not Resuscitate order. Also known as a CPR Directive.
DORADepartment of Regulatory Agencies.
DPHEDepartment of Public Health and Environment.
DPOADurable Power of Attorney.
DRADeficit Reduction Act.
DSPDirect Service Professional.
DVRDivision of Vocational Rehabilitation.
DYSDivision of Youth Services.
Defense MechanismsMechanisms used by an individual to protect the ego.
DenialAvoiding admission of certain external stimuli to consciousness.
Developmental DelayBeing behind other children of the same age in achieving cognitive, adaptive, physical, and social skills.
Developmental DisabilityA disability that occurs before the person reaches 22 years of age, substantially impacts the person’s daily life, is caused by an intellectual disability or related conditions (for example: cerebral palsy, autism, epilepsy, Down syndrome, or other neurological conditions) and significantly impairs the person’s general intellectual and /or adaptive functioning.
DiabetesA general term for diseases characterized by excessive urination (metabolism) and thirst.
Direct PaymentsGovernmental funding flowing directly to the individual accountable service user.
DirectionalityPerception of directions in relation to the body, particularly awareness of the right and left sides of the body.
DisciplineTo bring under control through enforcement of limits, moving toward development of self-control. (Not the same as punishment.)
DistractibilityInability to apply the mind to a given task.
Donut HoleThe difference between the initial Medicare Part D coverage limit and the catastrophic coverage threshold. Once a Medicare beneficiary surpasses the prescription drug limit, they are responsible for the entire cost of their prescription drugs until expenses reach the catastrophic coverage threshold
DorsalRefers to the upper back.
Down SyndromeA syndrome resulting from chromosomal abnormalities.
Dual EligibleDD services and mental health services
Due ProcessProcedures which guarantee an individual’s right to disagree, refuse, change, or permit services.
DysarthriaInability to speak or difficulty speaking which results from muscle weakness and/or lack of coordination in the chest, neck or mouth.
DysphagiaProblems related to swallowing.
DyspneaShortness of breath.
EBDEmotional Behavioral Disorder; also Elderly Blind or Disabled.
EBD WaiverElderly Blind or Disabled. A waiver program under Medicaid to provide eligible elderly, blind and disabled persons a community alternative to nursing facility care. Age 18 and older.
ECCEarly Childhood Connections. The name of the Part C Program of Colorado.
EDEmergency Department.
EEOCEqual Employment Opportunity Commission
EHA (PL 91 230)Education of the Handicapped Act of 1970. A federal law that consolidated previous legislation and established a new Title VI, which became known as Part B. This act established a grant program for educational agencies at the local level. Part B was the precursor to the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (PL 94-142) which significantly expanded the educational rights and opportunities for children and youth with disabilities. Also see IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act PL 101-476).
EIEarly Intervention services. Educational supports to children birth to three with developmental concerns.
EINEmployer Identification Number
EPCCMEnhanced Primary Care Case Management.
EPSDTEarly and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment. A Medicaid service for prenatal care and for children birth through age twenty-one.
EQROExternal Quality Review Organization referred to in 42 CRF 438.310 et seq.
EREmergency Room.
Early Childhood Connections (ECC)The name of the Part C Program in Colorado.
Early Intervention Services (EI)As part of Early Childhood Connections in Jefferson, Clear Creek, Gilpin and Summit Counties, DDRC offers educational and therapeutic supports to children birth to three with developmental concerns. Early intervention services are designed to enhance the capacity of families to support their children’s well being, development, learning, and full participation in their communities. Services address desired functional outcomes and are provided in a family’s everyday routines, activities and places.
EcholaliaRepetitive, parrot-like speech using words spoken by others.
Elder Justice ActRequires skilled nursing facilities under Medicare and nursing facilities under Medicaid to disclose information with regard to ownership, accountability requirements and expenditures.
Emergency Control ProcedureAn unanticipated use of a restrictive procedure in order to keep the person receiving services and others safe. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.11
EmpathyAbility to understand or feel what another is feeling.
Employment ConsultantAn individual with job development and training skills having primary responsibility for planning and/or providing job training and on-going support services.
EnrollmentThe completion of the application process and actual entry into or receipt of support services.
EpilepsyBrief temporary changes in the normal functioning of the brain's electrical system. Also known as seizures.
Equilibrium ReactionsResponse to regain or maintain balance.
Escape LearningA form of learning which allows an individual to avoid an unpleasant event.
EsotropiaOne or both eyes turning inward abnormally (cross-eyed).
Estate PlanningProcess of creating and preserving property during a person’s own lifetime and arranging for the transfer of property upon death. In reference to disabilities, the term means advantageous planning of investments, taxes, and trusts that will not sacrifice family security or federal benefits.
Ethernet (computer term)A local-area network (LAN) protocol that allows connected computers to communicate with each other. Ethernet uses bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates of 10 megabytes per second.
Exceptional Children’s Educational ActState law and regulations regarding services to school age students with disabilities.
ExpansionInterpreting a child's verbalization and expanding or increasing it in more detail. Example: Child, “Boy Candy” — Therapist, “Yes, the boy is eating candy.”
Expressive LanguageLanguage which people use to make their thoughts and ideas known to others. It may include written, verbal, gestures, sign language, use of a communication board and other forms of expression.
Extended FamilyRelatives of the immediate family.
ExtensionMovement of a joint, generally to straighten the arm, leg or trunk.
ExtinctionGradual disappearance of a behavior when it is no longer reinforced.
ExtroversionPersonality type that primarily derives pleasure from interaction with the outside physical and social environment rather than a person’s own internal environment. Opposite of introversion.
Eye-Hand CoordinationMovement of the hand in harmony with the eyes.
FAFunctional Assessment. A comprehensive analysis of factors which may influence current behavior. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.16
FAPEFree, Appropriate Public Education. FAPE is guaranteed by PL 94-142 at no expense to parents and family.
FCHCOFederal Coordinated Health Care Office.
FFSFee for Service.
FHAFederal Housing Authority
FIFiscal Intermediary
FMAPFederal Matching Assistance Percentage
FMLAFamily Medical Leave Act
FPLFederal Poverty Level.
FQHCFederally Qualified Health Center. Federally designated non-profit or public health care entities that provide comprehensive primary care services regardless of ability to pay.
FSCFamily Support Consultant.
FSCFamily Support Council. The local group of volunteers within the Community Centered Board’s service area charged with providing guidance and direction to the CCB for the implementation of the Family Support Services Program. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.14
FSSPFamily Support Services Program. Program designed to offer supportive services for families who have children with special needs living at home.
FTEFull-Time Employee. A personnel, staffing and budgeting term.
FacilitateTo help bring about.
Facilitated CommunicationA technique to enable people with communication impairments to communicate. An example might be where a person without a disability places his or her hands on the hands of the person with a disability and enables that person to move about a keyboard and type responses to a set of questions.
Family Support CouncilThe local group of volunteers within the Community Centered Board’s service area charged with providing guidance and direction to the CCB for the implementation of the Family Support Services Program. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.14
Family Support Plan (FSP)A plan written for the delivery of family support services. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.15
Family Support Services Program (FSS or FSSP)Program designed to offer supportive services for families who have children with special needs living at home.
Family TherapyTherapy with the family to work out family problems.
Fee-for-ServiceFunding to a provider on a service-by-service basis.
FiduciaryPerson in a special relationship of trust, confidence or responsibility in which one party occupies a superior relationship and assumes a duty to act in the dependent’s best interest. This includes a trustee, guardian, counselor or institution, but it could also be a volunteer acting in this special relationship.
Figure-Ground DiscriminationAn auditory or visual process by which an individual picks a sound or object from its background.
Fine MotorThe use of small muscle groups for controlled movements, particularly in object manipulation – such as movements our hands make, how we hold on to things and move our fingers.
FlexionMovement of a joint, generally to bend the arm, leg or trunk.
FluencyThe smoothness with which sounds, syllables, words and phrases are spoken; lack of hesitations, repetitions or stuttering.
Follow Along ServicesThis program has been discontinued. It has largely been replaced by Supported Living Services (SLS).
Form ConstancyRecognition of a form as the same, even though size, color, position or plane has changed.
Form PerceptionThe ability to recognize a form in all its parts, as a whole unit, then again broken down into its parts.
Fragile-X SyndromeA genetic cause of intellectual disability
Free-Rider PenaltyA penalty imposed requiring companies which do not provide insurance to pay part of the cost of any subsidies workers would be entitled to when buying insurance from proposed health exchanges. The government would pay the rest of the subsidies.
Frog Sitting, Inverted-W, W-sittingSitting in reverse tailor style.
Functional Assessment (FA)A comprehensive analysis of factors which may influence current behavior. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.16
Functioning LevelLevel of achievement.
GAPGraduate Activities Program. Services for adults with disabilities emphasizing maintenance of skills, recreation, leisure, and socialization.
GEDGraduate Equivalent Diploma.
GRSSGroup Residential Services and Supports. Twenty-four hour services and supports to individuals in residential settings ranging from four to eight beds.
GastrostomySurgical opening to the stomach; a feeding tube is used to feed the person.
Gastrostomy Tube (G-tube)A tube which has been surgically inserted into the stomach through the abdominal wall, or a tube which has been inserted through the nasal passage into the stomach, or both.
GeneralizationResponding in a similar fashion across different situations.
Giberson Medical Assistance HomesA contract agency eligible to serve persons with developmental disabilities within the DDRC service area.
GoalsBroad, general target areas of development written by the IFSP, IEP or IP team.
Gray Street CenterDDRC facility located at 5685 Gray Street, Arvada, Colorado.
Gross MotorMovement that involves balance, coordination and large muscle activity as required in holding your head up, walking, running, climbing, jumping and other physical activities.
Group TherapyTherapy involving several individuals as a group at the same time.
GuardianA person appointed by the court to be a substitute decision-maker for persons receiving services deemed to be incompetent of making informed decisions for themselves. The powers of a guardian are determined by a judge and may be limited to certain aspects of the person's life.
HCAHome Care Allowance. Also Home Care Agency.
HCBDDHome Community Based Programs for the Developmentally Disabled. Residential day programs that are funded through a combination of state and federal dollars. Daily reimbursement rates are higher than state funding to provide a more intensive rehabilitation program.
HCBSHome and Community Based Services waiver. This is a waiver program to provide Medicaid benefits in the home or community to disabled children who would otherwise be ineligible for Medicaid due to excess parental income and/or resources. Children must be at risk of nursing facility or hospital placement. Serves age birth through 17.
HCFAHealth Care Financing Administration (federal entity).
HCPHandicapped Children's Program (Department of Health).
HCPFHealth Care Policy and Financing. A state department effective July 1, 1994.
HERO AllianceHome Ownership Education and Resource Opportunities. A statewide collaborative effort of funders, service agencies, and governmental entities focused on providing opportunities for people with disabilities to purchase homes of their own in Colorado.
HHPHost Home Provider. An individual or individuals who provide supports in his or her home to one or two persons receiving services who are not related to the provider. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.41
HHSHealth and Human Services
HIPAAThe Health Insurance Portability And Accountability Act of 1996 (August 21), Public Law 104-191, which amended the Internal Revenue Service Code of 1986. Also known as the Kennedy-Kassebaum Act, the Act includes a section, Title II, entitled Administrative Simplification, requiring: 1. Improved efficiency in healthcare delivery by standardizing electronic data interchange, and 2. Protection of confidentiality and security of health data through setting and enforcing standards.
HIVHuman Immuno-Deficiency Virus.
HRCHuman Rights Committee. A third-party mechanism to safeguard the legal rights of persons receiving services by participating in the granting of informed consent, monitoring the suspension of rights of persons receiving services, monitoring behavior development programs in which persons with developmental disabilities are involved, monitoring the use of psychotropic medication by persons with developmental disabilities, and at the committee’s option, either providing or ensuring the investigation of allegations of abuse or neglect of persons with developmental disabilities who are receiving services or supports under this article. CRS 27-10.5-102
HRSAHealth Resources and Services Administration
HSRIHuman services Research Institute.
HUDHousing and Urban Development. Section 8 provides rental assistance. A federal agency.
HabilitationThe process by which a person with developmental disabilities is assisted in acquiring and maintaining life skills to cope more effectively with personal and developmental demands, and to increase the level of physical, mental, vocational and social ability through services.
Half-KneelKneel with one leg up.
HandednessPreference for use of one hand over the other.
HandicapA mental or physical impairment which prevents or interferes with normal mental or physical activities and achievement. The preferred term is “disability.”
Hard Drive (computer term)The mechanism that reads and writes data on a magnetic hard disk. Hard disk drives for personal computers generally have storage capacities in the 500-megabyte to 2-gigabyte range.
Hepatitis BAn inflammation of the liver caused by the Hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B is contagious.
Herpes SimplexFever blister.
Host HomeNon-licensed private residential setting that provides residential supports to no more than two persons in the HCB-DD waiver. The host home must be the primary residence of the provider.
Host Home Provider (HHP)An individual or individuals who provide supports in his or her home to one or two persons receiving services who are not related to the provider. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.41
Human Rights Committee (HRC)A third-party mechanism to safeguard the legal rights of persons receiving services by participating in the granting of informed consent, monitoring the suspension of rights of persons receiving services, monitoring behavior development programs in which persons with developmental disabilities are involved, monitoring the use of psychotropic medication by persons with developmental disabilities, and at the committee’s option, either providing or ensuring the investigation of allegations of abuse or neglect of persons with developmental disabilities who are receiving services or supports under this article. CRS 27-10.5-102
HydrocephalusThis condition results from widened cerebral spaces in the brain that inhibit the flow of cerebral spinal fluid. The cerebrospinal fluid collects and puts pressure on the brain. This can cause an enlarged head in infants and may be treated with a fluid shunt.
HyperactivityExcessive or abnormally high level of motor activity. May be associated with Attention Deficit Disorder.
HyperkinesisExcessive muscular activity.
HypertensionHigh blood pressure.
HypertonicIncreased tension in muscles; spastic.
HypotensionLow blood pressure.
HypotonicReduced tension in muscles; floppy.
ICCInteragency Coordinating Council. This is an advisory group of parents and professionals who advise the Governor on early intervention issues.
ICF/MRIntermediate Care Facility for the Mentally Retarded or intermediate care facility for people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities (ICFMR/DD). An ICF/MR provides a level of medical or custodial care beyond that required in supported living or group home placements, but less than a full-time intensive medical or custodial need. There are three ICF/MR facilities in Colorado: Grand Junction Regional Center (state), Wheat Ridge Regional Center (state), and Good Shepherd (private sector).
IDEAIndividuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990. See PL 101-476.
IDEIAIndividuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. IDEIA 2004 reauthorizes IDEA and maintains the basic principles of the law, a free appropriate public education for all students with disabilities, in the least restrictive environment; however, there are many changes and modifications to the IEP process and other aspects of the identification and evaluation of students with disabilities.
IDTInterdisciplinary Team. The team of people who develop the Individualized Plan (IP). Members of the team include the person applying for or receiving services, his or her parents, guardian, the resource coordinator, a psychologist, the Community Centered Board administrator and other persons who can help identify the person's needs and appropriate programs.
I/DDIntellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
IEPIndividualized Education Program. An educational plan for a specific student written by a multidisciplinary team. The plan states learning objectives and steps to meet the objective within a given time frame.
IFSPIndividualized Family Service Plan. A plan for an infant or toddler (birth through age three) written by a multidisciplinary team. The plan includes information on the child's present level of functioning, a statement of family strengths and needs, as related to the child, major outcomes expected, and services needed.
IPIndividualized Plan. A written plan designed to identify the total needs of a person receiving services and the services required to meet those needs. Also referred to as the Service Plan.
IPAIndependent Physician Association
IQIntelligence Quotient. A derived score from an intelligence test that provides information as to how an individual's aptitude for learning compares to other individuals of the same age.
IRSSIndividual Residential Services and Supports uses a variety of living arrangements designed to meet the unique needs of the person receiving services with no more than two persons receiving services per setting.
IRWEFederal Impairment Related Work Expenses. A term used by Social Security Administration in association with determining a person’s social security benefits and payments. It is the cost of items or supports an individual may need in order to be able to work.
ISAIntervention Services Administrators. Administrators responsible for special education in the Jefferson County School District.
ISSPIndividual Service and Support Plan. A written plan designed by a service agency to identify specific program objectives and how progress will be measured. It becomes a supplement to the Service Plan.
ITPIndividual Transition Plan.
IdiopathicA disease or condition arising spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause. Peculiar to the individual.
Imitation or ModelingLearning taking place as a function of copying a behavior of another person.
ImmunizationThe administration, usually by injection, of serums as a means of making a person immune from developing specific diseases.
DPT Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus
MMR Measles, Mumps, Rubella
OPV Oral Polio Vaccine
HIB Hemophilus Influenza Type B
ImpetigoRash with small blisters which become crusted and drain; usually occurring around the nose and mouth. Impetigo is contagious.
InclusionTo have the opportunity to participate in all activities available in a community; for example, education in a traditional classroom.
Independence InitiativeProvides guidance and assistance to states to implement programs to support the self-direction of services and supports by persons with disabilities and their families.
Independent LivingWhen an individual, formerly receiving DDRC services, now lives independently. Or a residential situation in which a person with disabilities lives by him or herself with limited assistance from others.
Individual MandateRequires most U.S. citizens and legal residents to have health insurance.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)An educational plan for a specific student written by a multidisciplinary team. The plan states learning objectives and steps to meet the objective within a given time frame.
Individualized Plan (IP)A written plan designed to identify the total needs of a person receiving services and the services required to meet those needs. Also referred to as the Service Plan.
Individual Service and Support Plan (ISSP)A written plan designed by a service agency to identify specific program objectives and how progress will be measured. It becomes a supplement to the I-Plan.
Infection ControlA program designed to provide a safe, sanitary and comfortable environment and to prevent the development and transmission of disease and infection.
Informed ConsentA decision based on knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages and implications of choosing a particular course of action.
Insurance ExchangesState-based health insurance which provides minimum coverage standards through an essential benefits package.
InhibitTo reduce or not allow something to be seen, as in abnormal reflexes or tone.
IntakeActivities performed by a resource coordinator to determine a developmental disability. Includes gathering information to start a person in a meaningful program of services.
Integrate (Motor)Reducing a reflex so that it is no longer seen.
IntegrationParticipation in the mainstream of community life. Participation means the person with disabilities maintains social relationships with family, peers and nondisabled people in the community. They may work and live alongside people without disabilities.
Intellectual DisabilityThe term used to describe a significant impairment of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior limitations identified prior to age 18.
InterdependenceThose multiple interactive relationships necessary to create a sense of belonging and support between people. These relationships are mutually sought, sustained over time and are beneficial to those involved.
Internet (computer term)A global web connecting millions of computers. Unlike on-line services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to provide to its local users and which local services to make available to the global Internet community.
IntestateDying without a will. Property passes to heirs as required by state probate laws, regardless of how the deceased may have intended property to be distributed. If a family does not plan properly, a person with disabilities could inherit resources that exceed limits set for participation in programs such as Medicaid and, therefore, lose their federal benefits.
Intranet (computer term)A Web site or group of Web sites belonging to an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organization's members, employees, or others with authorization. An intranet Web site looks and acts like any other Web site, but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access.
IntroversionPersonality type that primarily derives pleasure from pursuits conducted by oneself rather than pursuits involving others. Opposite of extroversion.
IrrevocableUnchangeable, as in a trust that cannot be changed.
JBCJoint Budget Committee.
JCHSJefferson County Department of Human Services.
JCMHJefferson Center for Mental Health. The community mental health center serving Jefferson, Gilpin and Clear Creek counties in Colorado. www.jeffersonmentalhealth.org
JTPAThe federal Job Training Partnership Act.
JTSJeffco Transition Services. JTS is a collaboration between the Jefferson County Public Schools and DDRC. This program is designed to support students ages 18-21 in their last three years of school eligibility. Considerable attention is devoted to the design of training programs so work, recreation, independent living skills and social inclusion are viable options for students with severe disabilities as they transition to adult life.
JargonSpecialized terms used among professionals in a given discipline. Clear and meaningful communication is often hindered by the use of jargon and should be avoided when discussing developmental disabilities with parents, those with disabilities, or others. It is also confusing when individuals from several disciplines are discussing a topic since some words have different meanings in different disciplines.
JargoningEarly language development stage where children use sounds and some words to resemble meaningful conversation.
JaundiceYellowish tint to the skin. Indication of liver involvement.
JigsA device used to hold materials being worked on or for guiding a tool or process in production.
Job CoachA person who assists people in integrated employment situations.
Joint Budget CommitteeA committee of the state legislature responsible for setting the budget for expenditure of funds.
Joint StabilityMuscles in front of and behind a joint that work at the same time. See co-contraction.
KeratosisThickening of skin.
Kinesthesia or KinestheticAwareness of movements of body parts.
LAN (computer term)Local Area Network. A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings.
LCSWLicensed Clinical Social Worker
LEALocal Education Agency.
LOCLevel of Care.
LPNLicensed Practical Nurse.
LRFILegislative Request for Information.
LSCLicensed Social Worker
LTCLong Term Care.
LTSSLong Term Services and Supports.
LabyrinthInner ear. Used to maintain equilibrium.
LacrimalTear ducts.
LassitudeWeariness, exhaustion.
LateralityLeft and right awareness; ability to distinguish between body sides.
Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA)A nonprofit organization formed to advance the education and general welfare of children and adults of normal or potentially normal intelligence who manifest disabilities of a perceptual, conceptual, or coordinative nature. The organization was founded in 1964 as the Association of Children with Learning Disabilities (ACLD). The name was modified to include both “children and Adults,” but the acronym remained the same. In 1990, the name was officially changed to the Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA). www.ldanatl.org
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)The most productive environment for an individual in which to address his or her needs. Such placement should range along a continuum of services and can include institutional placement, special schools, special classes, resource rooms or regular classroom placement. The family and their IEP or IHP team best decide the decision of least restrictive placement. Also see Least Restrictive Alternative.
LeisureTime when a person is free from work and duties.
Living WillDocument prepared for health care providers expressing the desire not to be kept alive by artificial means if disabled beyond a reasonable expectation of recovery.
Local Center of ExcellenceA group of people who promote collaboration and using best practices to improve health and health care.
LocalizationThe ability to turn toward a sound source.
MAMental Age.
MANEMistreatment, Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation
MCOManaged Care Organization. This is a risk-bearing entity which receives a fixed payment to assure that a set of consumers get all the services they require as specified in the managed care plan. An MCO does not directly provide services.
MDEMultidisciplinary Evaluation. Performed by the Multidisciplinary Team.
MDTMultidisciplinary Team. A team comprised of a child’s parents and professionals from various disciplines responsible for evaluating and reevaluating children thought to be eligible for early intervention services.
MFPMoney Follows the Person.
MIMental Illness
MI WaiverMentally Ill waiver. A waiver program under Medicaid to provide persons with major mental illness a community alternative to nursing facility care. Age 18 and older.
MINMost in Need. Terminology indicating that rationed services are allocated to those most in need.
MIS (computer term)Management Information System. MIS refers to a class of software that provides managers with tools for organizing and evaluating their departments.
MLRMedical Loss Ratio.
MMISMedicaid Management Information System is the computerized information system that provides management information and support for the Medicaid program, administered by the Department of Human Services.
MSOManaged Service Organization. An MSO integrates the functions of a managed care organization (MCO) with service delivery. An MSO may take the form of an integrated provider service network which agrees to form a separate entity that will accept risk and capitation, manage use across the network and carry out other MCO-type functions.
MSWMasters in Social Work.
Margaret Walters CenterA barrier-free program facility operated by DDRC. Located at 12665 West 52nd Avenue, Arvada, CO, named in honor of Margaret (Meg) Walters, esteemed Red Cross volunteer.
MainstreamingTerm used by educators to refer to the integration of children with disabilities into regular classes for part or all of the school day.
Managed CareStrategies that seek to maximize the value of services by controlling their cost and use. Quality is promoted and measured to ensure cost effectiveness.
MedicaidA funding source authorized under Title XIX of the Social Security Act that provides health care assistance to qualified individuals. The program is funded by both federal and state money, but is administered by the state.
Medicaid ExpansionsExpands Medicaid to 133% of the federal poverty level.
MedicareA federal health insurance program run by the Health Care Financing Administration that includes both hospital and medical insurance.
Mental Age (MA)A raw score from which an age equivalency can be determined.
Mental RetardationCurrent terminology is Intellectual Disability. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities defines mental retardation as “a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18. Five assumptions essential to the application of the definition are: (1) Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual's age, peers and culture. (2) Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication, sensory, motor, and behavioral factors. (3) Within an individual, limitations often coexist with strengths. (4) An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports. and (5) With appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with an intellectual disability generally will improve.”
Middle EarSpace between the eardrum and the inner ear. Houses three bones and two muscles.
MidlineAn imaginary line down the center of the body.
MobilityCapability of moving.
Model WorkerWorkers on short-term contracts who serve as role models for workers with disabilities. This allows flexibility within the work force to develop diversified contracts.
ModelingImitating or repeating a sound or action.
MonocularRefers to one eye that is used while the other eye is nonfunctional, covered, or shut.
Motor PlanningThe ability of the brain to carry out and sequence unfamiliar actions.
Multiple DisabilitiesTerm for students having two or more significant impairments, one of which is cognitive. Historically this was referred to as Multiple Handicapped.
NCTRCNational Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification.
NDTNeuro Developmental Treatment. A specific therapeutic technique to help a child gain more normal movement patterns.
NISHNational Industries for the Severely Handicapped.
NOVANew Opportunities that bring Valuable Alternatives. A parent-funded DDRC program to help individuals with disabilities develop better connections to their community and support the Self-advocacy Program.
NWDNo Wrong Door.
Natural SupportsSupports and resources provided in the community by family, friends, neighbor, and others who are not paid to provide such supports.
Negative ReinforcementA behavior that results in removing something that the person does not like. Because the behavior allows the individual to stop or remove something that is unwanted, the behavior is likely to occur again. For example, upon hearing loud music, a person turns down the radio to remove the stimulus hurting the person’s ears. Next time the person encounters a similar situation, the person is likely to turn the radio down again because it resulted in removing something that the person found aversive. See Escape Learning.
NocturiaExcessive urination during the night.
NormalizationThe process of making available to people with disabilities patterns of life which are as close as possible to typical circumstances and ways of life in society.
Nuclear FamilySiblings (brothers and sisters) and parents.
NystagmusConstant involuntary eye movement.
OACOffice of Administrative Courts.
OAPOld Age Pension
OBRAOmnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. A 1987 act that applies to eligible individuals residing in or moving from nursing facilities. OBRA 1993 gives Medicaid the right to access trusts.
ODOculus Dexter. The right eye.
OHCDSOrganized Health Care Delivery System.
OIGOffice of Inspector General
OSOculus sinister. The left eye.
OSERSThe federal Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.
OSHAOccupational Safety and Health Administration.
OUOculus uterus. Each eye.
Occupational Therapist (OT)Therapist who uses purposeful activities to improve movement and coordination, visual perceptual skills, self-help skills, and reading skills. An OT is also trained to adapt equipment.
OcularPertaining to the eye or vision.
Oculus dexter (OD)The right eye.
Oculus sinister (OS)The left eye.
Oculus uterque (OU)Each eye.
Olmstead DecisionSupreme Court decision affirming the right of individuals with disabilities to live in their community.
OralPertaining to the mouth.
Oral MotorAbility to move and coordinate structures of the mouth.
Oral Peripheral ExamExamination of the mouth including lips, jaw, teeth, hard and soft palate and tongue. The exam involves assessing both structure and function or movement to determine adequacy for speech.
OrientationThe comprehension and adjustment of an individual to his or her environment. Refers to identity of persons, location and time. Orientation may also refer to training that new employees receive.
Otitis MediaInfection occurring in the middle ear.
PACAdult Vocational Services Parent Advisory Committee. A committee composed of individuals with children or relatives in the AVS program. The purpose of the committee is to promote the quality of life for individuals being served in the vocational program through supporting the development of activities that support choices and opportunities for community involvement, vocational training, and employment. This committee meets on a regular basis.
PALPersonal Affordable Living, Inc. This organization owns condominiums and townhomes that it rents at affordable prices to adults with developmental disabilities who want to live independently.
PARPrior Authorization Review. Process whereby requested services and levels of support are authorized by the state prior to access. PAR shows what services are authorized for persons enrolled in Medicaid funded waiver programs (residential, day, CMW) or Supported Living Services.
PASAProgram Approved Service Agency.
PASRRPreadmission Screening and Resident Review.
PASSThe federal Plan to Achieve Self-sufficiency. A way for people who receive Social Security to set aside some of that money to help them achieve self-sufficiency without losing benefits.
PCPerceptual communications or politically correct.
PCAPersonal Care Alternative. A residential program up to three people, designed to meet the unique needs of the individuals.
PCCMPrimary Care Case Management.
PCMPPrimary Care Medical Provider
PCPPrimary Care Physician.
PDD<Pervasive Developmental Disorder. A broad category of disability that involves problems in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication. PDD is not a specific diagnosis but an umbrella term for several disorders and syndromes considered to be mental and/or behavioral disorders. Its major diagnosis is autism. PDD not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) refers to children who have autistic characteristics but do not formally qualify for the diagnosis.
PEAKParent Education and Assistance for Kids. A parent education group focused on special education law and regulation.
PETIPost Eligibility Treatment of Income. Applies to Medicaid programs and involves the portion of financial responsibility of the person.
PLPublic Law.
PL 94-142Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. A federal law growing out of and strengthening previous acts. This is the core of federal funding for special education. In 1990 this act was reauthorized and expanded under PL 101-476, the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1990, and was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
PL 101-476Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1990. Also known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This federal law amended and expanded The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. The act uses “people-first” language, replacing “handicapped children” with “individuals with disabilities” and the definition of those with disabilities was expanded. The law mandates special education services for children ages three to twenty-one and extends services for infants from birth to age two.
PL 108-446Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. IDEIA 2004 reauthorizes the IDEA and maintains the basic principles of the law, a free appropriate public education for all students with disabilities, in the least restrictive environment; however, there are many changes and modifications to the IEP process and other aspects of the identification and evaluation of students with disabilities.
PLWAPersons Living With AIDS (HCBS Program Waiver)
PMPMPer member, per month. (A per capital administrative fee)
PNPersonal Needs.
POCPlan of Care. Also, Plan of Correction
PPACCPatient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
PPDA skin test used to detect tuberculosis.
PQIPrevention Quality Indicators. A set of measures that can be used with hospital inpatient discharge data to identify quality of care for “ambulatory care-sensitive conditions”. These are conditions for which good outpatient care can potentially prevent the need for hospitalization or for which early intervention can prevent complications or more severe disease.
PTSDPost Traumatic Stress Disorder.
Parallel PlayChildren playing beside each other, but not interacting to a great extent.
Part CThat part of Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) which regulates infant and toddler services.
Partial CapitationReimbursement of specified services on a fee-for-service basis as opposed to paying for them as part of a capitation arrangement.
Peer GroupThe group of intellectual, social and/or educational equals with which an individual associates.
PerceptionThe process by which sensory information is interpreted which gives experience or a given sensation meaning.
Perceptual MotorInput (activities of sensory or visual nature) and output (activities of motor or muscular nature). The two are interrelated as parts of total activity.
Perceptual Motor DysfunctionA condition when the central nervous system is unable to perceive and interpret visual and sensory input accurately and produces the appropriate motor response.
Performance ObjectiveAn instructional task that has the following criteria: a) who will do it; b) under what circumstances; c) at what time; d) the standard acceptable; and e) how to measure attainment.
Peripheral VisionVision outside the central area of the retina. Side vision.
PerseverationA behavior that continues even after the need for it no longer exists and is not appropriate. For example, the child may say, “I go, go, go, go, go, go.”
Person Centered PlanningDesigning services and supports specifically around the individual needs and requests and based on what the individual already has in place that is working.
Personal Futures PlanA plan that focuses on the dreams and desires of an individual and the quality of the person's life.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)A broad category of disability that involves problems in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication. PDD is not a specific diagnosis but an umbrella term for several disorders and syndromes considered to be mental and/or behavioral disorders. Its major diagnosis is autism. PDD not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) refers to children who have autistic characteristics but do not formally qualify for the diagnosis.
PhobiaFear that is excessive.
PhoneticAn instructional approach to reading that stresses sounds of words in relation to their written representations. Science of speech pronunciation.
PhotophobiaIntolerance to light.
Physical SkillsThe ability to move, see, and hear.
Physical Therapist (PT)Therapist who works with an individual, generally through exercise, to improve movement patterns.
PicaA pattern of hording and eating non-food materials (rocks, grass, paper, etc.).
Pickle AmendmentProtects people receiving Old Age Pension (O.A.P.) from losing Medicaid due to cost of living increases in Social Security benefits.
Pivot ProneThe child lies on his stomach with neck, shoulders and hips off the floor. This position helps develop the muscles that oppose gravity.
PKU TestBlood test performed soon after a child is born. The test detects phenylketonuria, which is a metabolic disorder that fails to oxidize amino acids and untreated may result in an intellectual disability.
Planned GivingA type of estate planning in which people decide to make a gift to an organization either during their lifetime or after their death. Planned gifts can be real estate, cash, stock, or other.
Position in SpaceSpecial relationships of an observer to his or her environment. Perception of objects being to the side of, behind, before, above or below.
Positive ReinforcementThe immediate presentation of something rewarding following a behavior which increases that behavior, typically hugs, praise, food, special activities and prizes.
Power of Attorney: Health CareLegal document used to appoint someone to make health care decisions for a person who is not able to do so.
Power of Attorney: PropertyLegal document used to appoint someone to make property decisions, such as selling property or making important investment decisions for a person who is not able to do so. Power of Attorney is not the same as Guardianship.
PrehensionPhysical grasp. The way in which the hand takes an object.
Prevocational ServicesPrepares a participant for paid community employment. Includes teaching such concepts as attendance, task completion, problem solving and safety needed to obtain employment. The goal of this service is to help the participant obtain paid community employment within five years.
Program ManagerAn employee who is responsible for overseeing designated programs, the individuals receiving services from those programs, and compliance with regulations.
Prone PositionLying on the stomach.
ProprioceptionAwareness of movement, posture, and changes in the equilibrium.
PsychoactiveAffecting the mental state, such as a drug that has that action.
PsychomotorPhysical and psychological aspects of activity.
Psychotropic MedsDrugs which affect mental activity, behavior or perception. Psychotropic drugs include tranquilizers, sedatives, and anti-depressants.
PunishmentType One Punishment: Type One punishment procedures consist of presenting a stimulus contingent on a behavior which, in turn, decreases the behavior from occurring. Type One punishment is ILLEGAL to use with adults with developmental disabilities.

Type Two Punishment: Type Two punishment procedures consist of removing a stimulus contingent on a behavior which in turn decreases the behavior. Prior to using Type Two punishment procedures you MUST receive prior approval from the Human Rights Committee, with the exception of exclusionary time out which is illegal to use with adults with developmental disabilities.
QIOQuality Improvement Organizations. An organization in each state which serves as that state’s quality improvement organization contractor. QIOs are private, mostly not-for-profit organizations which are staffed by doctors and other health care professionals who are trained to review medical care and help beneficiaries with complaints about the quality of care and to implement improvements in the quality of care available throughout the spectrum of care.
QISQuality Improvement Strategy.
QuadrupedHands and knees posture.
Quality AssuranceAn organized set of activities intended to systematically ensure minimal safety of people receiving services and to encourage performance improvements.
Quality of LifeThe assessment of an individual’s meaningful relationships and activities from the individual’s point of view.
RAM (computer term)Random Access Memory. RAM is a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers.
RBIRoutines Based Interview. A structured conversation that walks a family through each step of a typical day in their life. It identifies the family’s concerns for their child and facilitates goal writing.
RCResource Coordinator or Resource Coordination. See Resource Coordination.
RCCORegional Care Collaborative Organization. Connects Medicaid participants with Medicaid providers, helps them find community and social services in their area, and assists with coordination of care.
RFIRequest for Information.
RFPRequest for Proposal. Generally an RFP is issued to suppliers of an item or a service indicating a desire to purchase on behalf of the entity issuing the RFP. DDRC uses the RFP process to locate services for our consumers.
RHCRural Health Center.
RNRegistered Nurse.
RPCReferral and Placement Committee.
RTDRegional Transportation District. The Denver metro area public bus transportation system.
R-1Jefferson County School District. (Reorganized District #1.)
Receptive LanguageA person’s understanding of the language of others.
ReciprocalMovement of the arms and/or legs in an alternating fashion.
RecreationThe use of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one’s body or mind.
Recreation TherapyThe use of recreational activity in a directed program in the care, treatment and rehabilitation of ill, disabled, and elderly persons.
ReflexAn involuntary response to a stimulus.
RehabilitationProcess of restoring to useful activity a person who has been ill or who is disabled. Accomplished through education and therapy.
Rehabilitation EngineeringInvolves the analysis of a job task or independent living activity that presents a problem to a disabled person and correction or reduction of this problem. Accomplished through adaptive jigs to help job performance, improved positioning, or highly technical solutions.
ReinforcerContingent consequences that strengthen behavior.
Related ServicesServices as stated in the Education for Handicapped Children's Act which are required to assist a child with disabilities to benefit from special education.
Representative PayeeA person or organization that is authorized to cash and manage public assistance checks (Social Security, Supplemental Security Income) for a person deemed incapable of doing so.
ResidentAn individual living in a DDRC residential facility.
Residential Care FacilityA residential facility that makes available personal services, protective oversight, social care due to a client’s impaired capacity to live independently and regular supervision available on a 24-hr. basis, but not to the extent that 24-hr. medical or nursing care is required.
Residential ServicesPart of the Home and Community Based Services for the Developmentally Disabled is the residential care provided for under the waiver.
Resource Allocation Committee (RAC)The DDRC Resource Allocation Committee meets monthly to review plans and service requests for those enrolled in Supported Living and Children’s Extensive Services.
Resource CoordinationServices provided by resource coordinators of Community Centered Boards to assist in developmental disability determination, Service Plan development, the coordination of services and evaluation of services with maximum participation by the individual and his or her family, guardian or authorized representative. Often referred to as Resource Coordination or Service Coordination or Case Management.
Retracted DrumsEar drums that are drawn in as a result of negative pressure in the middle ear.
Ridge HomeWheat Ridge Regional Center.
Righting ReactionsReflex that enables a person to bring his or her head or body into a straight line.
Robert Weiland CenterA barrier-free program facility operated by DDRC located at 3636 South Independence, Lakewood, CO. Named in honor of Dr. Robert Weiland, esteemed special educator.
RotationTwisting of the body trunk.
Routines Based Interview (RBI)A structured conversation that walks a family through each step of a typical day in their life. It identifies the family’s concerns for their child and facilitates goal writing.
SAService Agency. Also see Service Provider Organization.
SCHIPState Children’s Health Insurance Program.
SDACStatewide Data and Analytics Contractor.
SESupported Employment.
SEAState Education Agency.
SEACSpecial Education Advisory Council. An advisory council of parents to consult on special education issues.
SEPSingle Entry Point for service and support referral through local Department of Human Services or Community Centered Board.
SEPSSpecial Education Preschool.
SERSSpecial Education and Related Services.
SHOPSmall Business Health Options Program.
SIEDSignificant Identifiable Emotional Disorder. Term from the Colorado Department of Education Regulations referring to individuals with emotional involvement.
SISSupports Intensity Scale. A psychometric tool created by AAIDD to evaluate practical support requirements of a person with an intellectual disability through a positive and thorough interview process.
SLCSupported Living Consultant. An SLC assists individuals in getting their needs met through the Supported Living Services program.
SLICSignificant Limited Intellectual Capacity. Term from the Colorado Department of Education regulations referring to mentally retarded individuals.
SLSSupported Living Services. Provides services and supports tailored to the needs of the individual living in his or her own home or family home.
SMTSenior Management Team. Department directors, executive directors, and senior managers of DDRC.
SOCSpecial Olympics Colorado.
SPALService Plan Authorization Limit.
SPOService Provider Organization. A SPO is an individual or any publicly or privately operated program, organization or business providing service or supports for persons with developmental disabilities.
SSDISocial Security Disability Income. Federal benefit program sponsored by the Social Security Administration. Primary factor: disability and/or benefits received from deceased or disabled parent, benefit depends upon money contributed to the Social Security program either by the individual involved and/or the parent involved.
SSISupplemental Security Income. Federal financial benefit program sponsored by the Social Security Administration.
STNRSymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex. Bending of the neck causes bending of the arms and straightening in legs. Straightening of the neck causes straightening in the arms and bending in legs.
SWAPSchool to Work Alliance Project.
Safety Control ProcedureA written, planned restrictive procedure regarding when and how staff would physically intervene to keep an individual and/or others around the individual safe. CDHS/DDD 1.2.37
ScoliosisCurving of the spine.
ScreeningTools to determine if more extensive assessment needs to be completed.
Section 504The section of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act amendments of 1973 that is generally referred to as the civil rights clause for people with disabilities.
SeizureUnusual muscular or behavioral activity caused by abnormal brain impulses without purpose.
Self-conceptHow an individual views himself or herself.
Self-determinationActivities which promote or allow for consumer choice and the ability of a consumer or family to use principles of freedom, authority, support and responsibility.
Self-directed SupportsServices funded by government but under the control and direction of the service user.
Sensorineural Hearing LossDamage to the nerves in the ear that results in hearing loss.
SensoryInformation obtained from touch, pressure, pain, temperature, sight, smell, taste and movement.
Sensory IntegrationThe brain's ability to receive, organize and interpret sensory information. Sensory integration programs focus on assisting an individual to increase this capacity.
Sensory-MotorIn the development of a child, learning occurs through the interaction between the senses and muscular system. The child explores by touching, tasting, seeing, smelling, moving, hearing, etc.
Server (computer term)A computer or device on a network that manages network resources. For example, a file server is a computer and storage device dedicated to storing files. Any user on the network can store files on the server. A print server is a computer that manages one or more printers, and a network server is a computer that manages network traffic.
Service AgencyAlso referred to as Program Approved Service Agency (PASA) and Service Provider Organization (SPO).
Service and SupportOne or more of the following: education, training, independent or supported living assistance, therapies, identification of natural supports and other activities.
Service PlanA written plan designed to identify the total needs of a person receiving services and the services required to meet those needs. Also referred to as the Individualized Plan (IP).
Service Provider Organization (SPO)A Service Provider Organization is an individual or any publicly or privately operated program, organization or business providing service or supports for persons with developmental disabilities.
Service SubstitutionA process using a lower cost but equally effective service in place of a higher cost service.
ShapingA technique for teaching new behavior by reinforcing successive approximations to the goal behavior.
SiblingA brother or sister.
Sign LanguageMeans of communication that uses hand gestures as symbols for words.
Social and Emotional DevelopmentThe ability to interact with others.
SocializationThe process whereby an individual acquires the knowledge, values, facility with language, social skills and social sensitivity that enables him or her to become integrated into and behave adaptively within a society.
Spatial RelationshipsPerception of the relation of two or more objects to an individual and to each other.
Special EducationSpecially designed instruction.
Special Needs (or Third Party) TrustAn individual, discretionary trust prepared for a person who has a disability. This is intended to supplement, not replace government benefits. A trustee must administer the funds; the person with a disability cannot have direct access to the funds. The trust should be irrevocable (cannot be changed) and be written by a lawyer specially trained in elder or Medicaid law.
Speech and Language Pathologist or Speech TherapistAn individual with a Master’s Degree and certificate in speech and language pathology. Speech and language pathologists are qualified to diagnose speech, language, voice and fluency (stuttering) disorders and to plan and implement therapy programs.
Splinter SkillAccomplishment of a specific task under specific conditions. (Not able to do the task in all situations.)
Staffing (Placement) ReviewEducational term meaning a meeting to plan a program for the student.
State Balancing Incentive ProgramEnhanced federal matching payments provided to states which increase the proportion of Medicaid long-term services and supports dollars going toward HCBS, expand covered services and cover individuals with higher levels of need.
StimulusA person, place, or thing - including light, sound, taste, texture and odor. A stimulus evokes a person to respond in a certain way.
StrabismusEyes cannot move in unison due to lack of muscular coordination. Squinting.
Strapesius ReflexThe reflex which protects the ear from loud noises.
StrepTerm referring to a bacterial infection caused by the organism streptococcus that may be manifested by upper respiratory or skin symptoms. Strep is contagious.
SubcapitationUsed by Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) to shift financial risk to provider agencies or provider networks.
SuccessorOne who follows another in a particular office. A successor guardian is named to follow the original guardian if the original person or institution can no longer hold office. A successor trustee takes over management of a trust after the initial trustee ceases to act. Families should name a number of successors to ensure someone will outlive the person with the disability.
Supine PositionLying on the back.
Supported EmploymentPaid employment for adults with developmental disabilities who, without long-term support, are not likely to succeed in a regular job.
SymmetricalBoth arms or both legs move together.
SynergyAbnormal patterned movement of an arm or leg caused by central nervous system damage.
300% RuleA requirement that individuals cannot have assets over 300% of the maximum allowable for SSI payments and still be eligible for Medicaid funding. This is an income standard that applies only under an optional Medicaid group elected by the state, and if elected, applies only to people who need an institutional-level care.
TANFTemporary Aid to Needy Families.
TBITraumatic Brain Injury. An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force resulting in total or partial functional eligibility of psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
TCMTargeted Case Management. Case management services which are provided as a Medicaid benefit for a specific target group of Medicaid recipients who have a developmental disability and who meet the program eligibility criteria.
TDDTelecommunications Device for the Deaf.
TEFRAThe federal Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1992.
TINTax Identification Number
TJTCThe federal Targeted Jobs Tax Credit.
TPLThird Party Liability.
TSTourette Syndrome. A neurological disorder characterized by tics - involuntary, rapid, sudden movements or vocalizations that occur repeatedly in the same way.
TactileRefers to the sense of touch. Consists of: a) a system of protection, like fight or flight response; b) a system of discrimination by which an individual correctly identifies and distinguishes touch sensations.
Tactile DefensivenessReacting negatively to being touched.
Tardive Dyskinesia (TD)Condition of automatic stereotypical movements that occur as an undesired effect of therapy with certain psychoactive drugs.
Target BehaviorBehavior targeted for increase or decrease as part of a behavioral program.
Targeted Case ManagementCase management services which are provided as a Medicaid benefit for a specific target group of Medicaid recipients having a develop-mental disability and who meet the program eligibility criteria.
TASHTASH is an international association of people with disabilities, their family members, other advocates, and professionals working for a society in which inclusion of all people in all aspects of society is the norm. TASH is concerned with human dignity, civil rights, education, and independence for all individuals with disabilities. Colorado has a TASH chapter; national headquarters are in Washington, D.C. www.tash.org
Team MeetingA meeting that includes persons working with or having an interest in an individual’s services and supports.
Temporary Aid To Needy Families (TANF)The time-limited welfare assistance authorized in the Welfare Reform Act of 1996.
Testamentary TrustA trust set up by a will. A will is the best way to fund or put resources into a Special Needs Trust.
Therapeutic RecreationTherapeutic Recreation uses treatment, education, and recreation services to help people with disabilities and other conditions to develop and use their leisure in ways that enhance their health, functional abilities, independence, and quality of life.
Thermal StimulationAn indirect technique used to facilitate swallowing.
Title XIXMedicaid. Federal program that provides funding for programs and services to be offered to the population of persons with developmental disabilities. Moderate Supervision Group Homes are one of the services provided.
Title XXFederal program administered by Colorado Department of Social Services that provides money for day programs for persons twenty-one years of age and older. The DDRC work center receives these funds for some individuals.
TokenA conditioned reinforcer redeemable for other reinforcing items or activities. Examples of tokens include money, poker chips, coupons and points.
Tourette Syndrome (TS)A neurological disorder characterized by tics - involuntary, rapid, sudden movements or vocalizations that occur repeatedly in the same way.
TracheotomyOpening and inserting a tube into the trachea to facilitate breathing.
TransdisciplinaryAn approach to intervention which is based on the premise that one person can perform the roles of professionals by providing services to the consumer under the on-going guidance of the individuals from the other disciplines involved. Representatives of various disciplines work together to develop the plan, but only one or two members actually provide the services.
Transition ServicesA coordinated set of activities for a student, designed within an outcome-oriented process, which promotes movement from school to post-school activities including post secondary education, vocational training and education, integrated employment, continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living and community services.
TympanogramA pressure test that tells how the ear canal, eardrum, eustachian tube and middle ear bones are working. The ear canal is closed off with a probe tip, and as air pressure is introduced into the canal, eardrum movement is recorded.
UAPSee new name – UCEDD.
UCEDDUniversity Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities. Federally supported research programs regarding developmental disabilities.
ULTC 100.2Uniform Long Term Care. Assessment process for many Medicaid funded programs.
Umbilical HerniaProtrusion of navel, corrected by surgery.
UnilateralInvolving one side of the body.
Utilization ReviewA technique employed in managed care systems to evaluate the extent to which certain services are used by certain individuals or groups
Upper ExtremityArm.
VestibularA small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal (ear, heart, mouth, etc.).
VinelandAdaptive behavior assessment tool frequently used to determine a developmental disability.
Virtual NetworkAn interconnected group of individual PCCM practices, PCCM partnerships, clinics and common-ownership enterprises that appears to be one large single network to the client. Enables providers to communicate with each other simply through a consistent, web-based user interface so that each provider has, at the point of service, information about all other services previously offered to the client anywhere in the network.
Visual PerceptionSensory information received through the eyes and identified, organized, and interpreted by the brain.
Visual Motor CoordinationVision coordinated with movements of the body.
Vocational AssessmentIdentifies the individual's strengths, skills, interests, abilities and rehabilitation needs. Accomplished through on-site situational assessments at local businesses and in community settings.
Vocational RehabilitationPreparing any person with a disability for useful and purposeful employment through on-the-job training and use of rehabilitative equipment.
Volitional Movement Deliberate movement. Performing on purpose.
Volume 8Policy manual for Medicaid Services.
WAISWechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.
WAN (computer term)Wide Area Network. A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Computers connected to a wide-area network are connected through telephone lines or radio waves.
WESWork Experience and Study program. Vocational education for students ages 18-21. In this program, students concentrate on developing and refining home living and job skills.
WICWomen, Infants and Children. A nutrition program for low income women that is run through the Department of Health.
WISCWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.
WLWaiting List.
WRATWide Range Achievement Test.
WRRCWheat Ridge Regional Center.
WaiverThis term used in a disability context usually refers to the federal government’s Medicaid program. In a practical sense ICF/MR (institutional) programs are viewed as services to which people with developmental disabilities are entitled. The government’s Health Care Finance Authority (HCFA) can grant exceptions or waivers to states that have consumers who would rather have community non-institutional services. An individual must sign a form acknowledging they are foregoing the option of institutional services.
Weight BearingSupporting one’s own weight in any position.
Weight ShiftMoving weight from one side of the body to the other. For example, when standing, shifting weight from one foot to the other.
WillLegal document by which a person directs to whom his or her property will pass at death.
Workstation (computer term)A personal computer, typically linked with others to form a LAN (local-area network), although they can also be used as stand-alone systems.
Page Last Updated: 2017-09-27